Annual household income was explored and categorized as $60 000
Most other covariates experienced provided each day vitamin D and you will multivitamin enhance use, annual dental professional go to (yearly or perhaps not), tooth-brushing frequency (twice a day or otherwise not), flossing frequency, ages and you may sex.
Data were accessed and analyzed at the Research Data Centre (RDC) at the University of Manitoba using SPSS 20 (IBM, Armonk, NY), SAS 9.2 (SAS, Cary, NC), and Stata 13 MP (StataCorp LP, College Station, Tex.). As per RDC restrictions, original sample sizes were suppressed. Bootstrap weights for variance estimation and weighted results are presented with degrees of freedom fixed to 11. Descriptive statistics include means and frequencies with 95% confidence intervals (CI). ? 2 tests were used to determine the unadjusted correlation of each categorical independent variable with GI and LOA. Student t tests were used to determine the unadjusted correlation of each continuous independent variable with GI and LOA. Three multiple logistic regression models for GI and for LOA were developed to determine the adjusted association between 25(OH)D levels and GI and LOA, controlling for potential confounders. Model A used 25(OH)D concentration of < 50 nmol/L, model B used 25(OH)D concentration < 75 nmol/L, and model C used mean 25(OH)D concentration. Variables with a p value of ? 0.075 were included in the multiple logistic regression analysis for GI and LOA, with the exception of plasma vitamin D concentration and known risk factors for periodontal disease, such as smoking. A p value ? 0.05 was significant.
The mean 25(OH)D concentrations (95% CI) in the GI and LOA samples were 90.8 (77.5–104.2) and 85.6 (74.6–97.2) nmol/L, respectively. Although mean 25(OH)D levels were above the thresholds for vitamin D sufficiency, 63% of each sample had concentrations below the 75 nmol/L threshold and 25% of each population had 25(OH)D levels < 50 nmol/L.
But not, when confounding parameters was in fact managed having, numerous logistic regression study of GI (Table 2) revealed that only plaque and you will intercourse was indeed significantly in the GI
Bivariate analysis of GI (Table 1) [Ed. Note: All Tables in this article are available in the PDF version]. showed that several variables were significantly associated with 25(OH)D concentrations below the thresholds for vitamin D sufficiency. Participants with 25(OH)D concentrations < 50 nmol/L and < 75 nmol/L had significantly increased odds of having more GI (odds ratio (OR) 1.63 and 1.44, respectively). Those taking vitamin D supplements had significantly lower odds for GI (OR 0.56), while those with diabetes had increased odds of having moderate to severe GI (OR 1.33). Mean BMI was significantly higher among those with the worst GI. Meanwhile, those who reported frequenting a dental professional ? 1 time a year, brushing their teeth twice daily and flossing daily had significantly lower odds for GI. Increased scores for plaque were associated with increased odds for moderate to severe GI. Males had increased odds for GI compared with females, while those in higher-income categories had lower odds for GI than those in lower-income categories.
Females had lower probability of average to help you severe GI, while you are highest values into plaque index improved chances from average to help you serious GI. Zero tall loved ones ranging from twenty five(OH)D and GI are present in patterns An effective, B otherwise C throughout the several logistic regression studies away from GI.
Numerous variables was basically significant in the bivariate research off LOA (Desk step three). Truth be told, taking good multi vitamin otherwise a nutritional D supplement try on the enhanced odds of more serious LOA. High suggest HbA1c thinking was basically for the improved likelihood of even more significant LOA because the was HbA1c > 7%. Earlier ages try of this increased probability of more serious LOA, when you are a living out of > $60 one hundred thousand is actually for the lower likelihood of more serious LOA. No significant association try discovered anywhere between twenty-five(OH)D levels and you will LOA on bivariate research.